Cultural Competence Training For African Immigrants
Cultural competence can be described as the ability of understanding, communicating, and interacting efficiently with people across cultures (Schouler-Ocak et al., 2015). Cultural competence comprises the process of one being aware of their own view of the world based on their cultural practices and traditions, as well as developing positive attitudes towards the difference in cultures of others (Allison et al., 2016). Cultural competence is an important aspect of healthcare because cultural practices directly impact health care practices (Venters et al., 2019). African immigrants often find themselves in situations of cultural dilemmas because of the differences in culture between their original areas of residence and their new ones (Price et al., 2015). Cultural Competence Training For African Immigrants
The main problem witnessed on the project site is the lack of cultural competence among health care providers regarding African immigrants. This problem negatively affects the health care experience of African immigrants (Purnell & Fenkl, 2019). Because of the gap in cultural incompetence, there is a huge disparity in the quality of health services received by the African immigrant population as compared to other population groups in United States (Clough et al., 2013). Evidence points to the fact that the African immigrant population has a lower health score and patient outcomes as compared to other groups with less than 18% of those admitted showing improved results over the course of their recovery (World Health Organization, 2020).
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Knowledge gaps existing in practice causing cultural incompetence needs to be addressed because it violated the healthcare sector’s goal of ensuring fairness and equality in the access to services regardless of ethnic or racial orientation (Allen et al., 2012). As the World Health Organization explains, the health care sector aims at ensuring that everyone can be as healthy as possible, including the African immigrants (World Health Organization, 2020). The lack of cultural competence among health care providers that leads to African immigrants having poor health experiences violates this goal. The solution put forth by this project is the development of a cultural training program for African immigrants. This program is aimed at equipping health care providers with the right knowledge and set of skills to address the health concerns of African immigrants. The development of a cultural competence program is important because it will help in the removal of sociocultural factors that negatively impact the health experiences of African immigrants (Omenka et al., 2020).
The number of African immigrants entering and settling in the United States increases almost every year (Purnell & Fenkl, 2019). This is because African immigrants prefer moving to the United States in search of better living conditions, better employment opportunities, and better health care services (Seck, 2015). However, African immigrants have been brought up in entirely different societies with completely different cultural beliefs and practices (Allen et al., 2012).
The African immigrant group has unique health care needs and most of these needs are related to their cultural practices (Purnell & Fenkl, 2019). Purnell and Fenkl (2019), report that health care providers are not devoted to finding methods of addressing these unique health care needs of African immigrants. Omenka et al. (2020), explain that the lack of cultural competence among health care providers is a crucial contributing factor to the poor health of African immigrants. Without cultural competence training, health care providers cannot effectively tackle the health care concerns of African immigrants (Kamya, 2017).
The main problem faced at the project site is the lack of cultural competence training among health care providers, specifically regarding African immigrants. The facility is a primary care clinic in Garland, Texas that attends to various groups of people and the African immigrants group is one of them. However, the African immigrant group is different in terms of their health care needs since most of their medical needs are related to their culture (Asare & Sharma, 2012). The staff have not received formal training on addressing the needs of this population, therefore they cannot deliver health services that address the cultural, social, and linguistic needs of the African immigrant group. This results in poor health conditions for African immigrants. There are several resources available that are not being used, and this project addresses to address these gaps.
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that the failure of health care providers to administer effective health care services to African immigrants puts the group at an increased risk of getting sick (CDC, 2021). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that this has been clear, especially during the COVID-19 period as many African immigrants have suffered from and died of COVID-19 (2021). The proposed solution is the development of a cultural competence training program for the health care providers. This program is aimed at enabling the health care providers to gain the knowledge and techniques they can employ to provide quality health care services to African immigrants.
In healthcare workers caring for African Immigrant groups (P), how can how can an effective cultural competence training program (I) compared to no training program (C) be developed to improve the resource allocation and referrals for African Immigrants (O) in less than 4 weeks (T).
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The search strategy for this project included the use of databases, search terms, and keywords. The databases included MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Google Scholar, and CINAHL Complete. The keywords used were based on the PICO framework. The participants were “African immigrants”, “African incomers”, and “African in-migrants”. The intervention was “cultural competence”, “competence in cultures”, “cultural awareness”, “intercultural competence”, “culturally responsive”, “cultural literacy”, and “culturally informed”. The outcomes were “improved health care”, “better health care”, “enhanced health”, and “raised health care status”. Boolean operators were also used to combine search terms. The search terms were combined to broaden or narrow the search results. “OR” and “AND” were the Boolean operators used. The citation list was reviewed to identify any additional studies that were eligible for inclusion. This was to ensure that no relevant studies were excluded. There was focus on the breadth and specificity of the search.
Predetermined criteria for inclusion and exclusion had already been established and all the citations were reviewed against it. Various types of study designs were included, and these include systematic reviews, cross-sectional studies, and case reports and series. All included studies specifically addressed how cultural competence in the healthcare profession would be useful in improving the health outcomes of African immigrants or how deficiency of cultural competence among health care providers contributed to the poor health of African immigrants. The definition of cultural competency along with all its elements was based on the United States National Library of Medicine-National Institutes of Health (National Library of Medicine, 2019). The library defines cultural competency among health care providers as the ability to collaborate effectually with individuals from different cultures to improve their health care experience and outcomes Health (National Library of Medicine, 2019).
The studies included also specifically compared the cultural competency of health care providers to the health outcomes and experiences of African immigrants. All potential settings, such as hospitals, clinics, community settings, and others that were related to the studies, were included. The studies included specifically had their participants as African immigrants and no other group was substituted for the participants. Studies were exempted because of the following. (a) The study population was not only African immigrants, or there was no separate reporting of the results of African immigrants. (b) The study discussed African Americans instead of African immigrants. (c) The study did not have its core focus as cultural competence among health care providers in relation to African immigrants. (d) The intervention targeted the health care system or the health care providers instead of the patients. However, no studies were excluded based on participant age or sex, or article language. Cultural Competence Training For African Immigrants
Developing the themes was founded on analysis and examination of previous studies that were related to cultural competence issues among African immigrants. The main themes that emerged include effects of cultural incompetence, how language barriers affect cultural competence, and the impact of cultural competence training on health care workers. These themes are the main points of emphasis when developing a cultural competence program for African immigrants. Focusing on these themes will guarantee the success of the cultural competence program for African immigrants.
Review of Study Methods
Most of the literatures reviewed the qualitative literature review methods to supplement the facts in their studies. The qualitative literature review research was conducted in hospital and clinical settings by assessing redacted medical records. The facts gave insights into how cultural competence affected the quality of patient outcomes among the African immigrant population. The case study aimed at identifying the percentages of hospitals and clinics that acknowledge cultural sensitivity and inclusion through cultural competence training. Cultural Competence Training For African Immigrants